By Richard L. Lael
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Extra info for Arrogant diplomacy: U.S. policy toward Colombia 1903-1922
They have received exact justice, after I had in vain endeavored to persuade them to accept generosity. In their silly efforts to damage us they cut their own throats. They tried to hold us up; and too late they have discovered their criminal error. By the way, on the score of morality it seems to me that nothing could be more wicked than to ask us to surrender the Panama people, who are our friends, to the Colombian people, who have shown themselves our foes. 49 In view of Roosevelt's determination, Colombian chances of regaining sovereignty over Panama seemed remote.
Page 5 Following passage of the Spooner Act in June, Roosevelt found Colombian delay increasingly unacceptable; he was anxious to conclude an agreement and to proceed with actual construction. Secretary of State Hay, therefore, orally informed the Colombian chargé, Tomás Herrán, who assumed control of the legation upon Concha's resignation, that Roosevelt sought a categorical decision over the terms currently under discussion by January 1903. Herrán was also aware that Senator Shelby Cullom was urging the Roosevelt administration to ignore Colombia and to seize Panama, citing ''universal public usefulness" as justification if Colombia did not soon conclude an acceptable canal agreement.
Without the generous assistance of many fellow historians, librarians, archivists, and friends, this study would not have been possible. I am particularly grateful for the thoughtful and constructive criticisms of the following historians: Samuel F. , Joseph Arbena, William Beezley, Joseph Tulchin, R. Don Higginbotham, and George Mowry. Ernest Hillard also provided invaluable assistance during the final stages of this work. To these and to all the others whom I have not specifically named, I express my deep appreciation.
Arrogant diplomacy: U.S. policy toward Colombia 1903-1922 by Richard L. Lael