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Tacking edge-to-edge joints in light-gauge steel Since molten iron has a greater capacity for hydrogen adsorbtion than the solid metal, the excess hydrogen is partly given off during weld cooling. Not all of it may escape, the residue being present in the form of voids which are really trapped bubbles. Oxygen is also soluble in iron, reacting with carbon to form carbon monoxide, which also comes out of solution as the metal cools, resulting in porosity. Molten iron is also a solvent for nitrogen and, as a result, hardening may occur due to iron-nitride formation.
30c) will be left on completion of the weld . 31. 31 b. 32, the latter method having the advantages of greater speed and lower incidence of weld craters at the plate edges. A neat finish can then be obtained by depositing the final weld around the plate perimeter. 33, where a thin sheet overlays a comparatively thick section, requires particular attention to the electrode angle. 33a, the top sheet will suffer from irregular melting and fusion along the weld edge of this side will be unsatisfactory.
Simultaneously with 3 and 4 moving the electrode along the joint and gradually increasing the electrode vertical alignment to the work thus conpensating for the electrode shortening. The crater that is formed almost immediately the arc is struck remains while metal is being deposited and accumulated behind it. Careful observation of the crater during welding is necessary because its position relative to the joint centre line determines the accuracy of weld deposition. The perimeter of the crater bounded by the molten metal must be carefully observed to impose slag control- a factor largely determined by the way in which the electrode is manipulated.
Ancient Blacksmith, the Iron Age, Damascuc Steel, and Modern Metallurgy