By Ken B. Anderson, John C. Crelling
content material: Biology of amber-producing bushes : specialise in case reviews of Hymenaea and Agathis / Jean H. Langenheim --
good isotope composition of amber / Arie Nissenbaum and Dan Yakir --
Resin-derived hydrocarbons in clean and fossil dammar resins and Miocene rocks and oils within the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia / Scott A. Stout --
Pyrolytic and spectroscopic experiences of the diagenetic alteration of resinites / Tatsushi Murae, Shuji Shimokawa, and A. Aihara --
Maturation of sophistication Ib (polylabdanoid) resinites / David J. Clifford and Patrick G. Hatcher --
New proof in regards to the constitution, composition, and maturation of sophistication I (polylabdanoid) resinites / Ken B. Anderson --
Gedanite and gedano-succinite / Edith C. Stout, Curt W. Beck, and Barbara Kosmowska-Ceranowicz --
strange resin chemistry from higher Carboniferous pteridosperm resin rodlets / P.F. van Bergen, M.E. Collinson, A.C. Scott, and J.W. de Leeuw --
research of fossil resins from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic / Ken B. Anderson and Ben A. LePage --
Resin from Africa and South the USA : standards for distinguishing among fossilized and up to date resin in line with NMR spectroscopy / Joseph B. Lambert, Suzanne C. Johnson, and George O. Poinar, Jr. --
The age of Dominican amber / David A. Grimaldi --
The petrology of resinite in American coals / John C. Crelling --
hint amino acid composition of average resins : elucidating the character of resinous artists' fabrics / S.M. Halpine --
Amino acids within the amber matrix and in entombed bugs / Xueyun S. Wang, Hendrik N. Poinar, George O. Poinar, Jr., and Jeffrey L. Bada --
Dammar resin : a chemical version for reactions of Utah resinite / Richard Dutta and Harold H. Schobert --
restoration and characterization of macroscopic fossil resins from Western coals / Q. Yu, L. Li, and J.D. Miller.
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Additional info for Amber, Resinite, and Fossil Resins
Fossil amber, mostly belonging to diterpenoids based polymers (Anderson's class I amber), gave δ C values ranging from -19 to -25‰, δD from -160 to -270‰, and δ O of +16 to +19‰. Because the isotopic composition of the original resin is influenced by the metabolic pathway of carbon fixation (for carbon) and the composition of environmental water (for oxygen and hydrogen) and presumably it is probably not strongly modified by diagenetic effects it is probable that paleobotanical, paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental information can be potentially obtained from the stable isotope composition of the amber.
Despite the major caveat of lack of associated plant remains, it is interesting that, floristically, the relationship to an Asian conifer, such as Agathis or its relatives, seems possible. Much of the Eocene and Oligocène floras associated with the Baltic Succinite-producing trees were similar to those found in the subtropical regions of Assam, Burma and Yunnan, China today (136). Also some bordering areas were clearly tropical, with a flora similar to some elements in Indo-Malaysia. Agathis is an unusual conifer in that it occurs today amid angiosperms in lowland rainforests as well as with subtropical elements in other habitats.
Dilemma Regarding the Involvement of Agathis as the Plant Source of Baltic Succinite Pro Agathis Involvement 1) Amber chemistry predominantly similar to extant A. australis (Araucariaceae) 2) Massive accumulation with many large pieces similar to extant A. 5-4% abietanes, a composition of diterpenoid acids closely matched by the modern A. australis (127). Secondly, the volatile terpenoids closely resemble those found in amber further documented by Agathis fossils within the current distribution of Agathis (128).
Amber, Resinite, and Fossil Resins by Ken B. Anderson, John C. Crelling