By Julia Lynch
This publication asks why a few international locations dedicate the lion's proportion in their social coverage assets to the aged, whereas others have a extra balanced repertoire of social spending. faraway from being the result of calls for for welfare spending via robust age-based teams in society, the 'age' of welfare is an unintentional final result of ways that social courses are arrange. the way in which that politicians use welfare kingdom spending to compete for votes, alongside both programmatic or particularistic traces, locks those early institutional offerings into position. So whereas society is altering - getting older, divorcing, relocating out and in of the exertions strength over the existence path in new methods - social rules don't evolve to seize up. the end result, in occupational welfare states like Italy, the us, and Japan, is social spending that favors the aged and leaves working-aged adults and kids principally to fend for themselves.
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Additional info for Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics)
Public only” ﬁgure calculated from Waldo, Sonnerfeld, MacKusick, and Arnett 1989. Labor market supports may of course be targeted at quite different age groups across countries and across time. For example, in 1996 Germany introduced an extension of unemployment beneﬁts for workers transitioning into retirement, while at the same time reducing the period of eligibility for younger workers. OECD ﬁgures on active labor market policy spending include outlays for early retirement “for labor market reasons,” as well as youth job training programs.
This chapter works with aggregate spending data to sketch a preliminary portrait of policy priorities; case studies in chapters 4 through 6 ﬂesh out this sketch. Welfare transfers taking place within the state sphere are likely to be closely intertwined with intergenerational transfers that take place within families and in the context of private markets. Still, state policies toward 16 Measuring the Age of Welfare different age groups are important even if they do not reﬂect the total output of the state-market-family nexus for particular age groups.
Tax policy is strong, particularly in the ﬁelds of housing and private pensions, and certainly does not counterbalance the extreme elderly orientation of direct expenditures. In sum, the best available information on tax expenditures for social policy points in the same direction as the information on direct expenditures. With the possible exception of Australia, which also had an ambiguous ranking based on the ENSR for direct expenditures, tax data conﬁrm the relative age orientation of different welfare states derived from measures of direct expenditures alone.
Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics) by Julia Lynch