By Haizhou Li, Kar-Ann Toh, Liyuan Li
Biometrics is the examine of tools for uniquely spotting people in response to a number of intrinsic actual or behavioral qualities. After many years of study actions, biometrics, as a famous medical self-discipline, has complex significantly either in functional expertise and theoretical discovery to satisfy the expanding desire of biometric deployments. during this e-book, the editors supply either a concise and obtainable creation to the sector in addition to a close insurance at the targeted examine issues of their options in a large spectrum of biometrics examine starting from voice, face, fingerprint, iris, handwriting, human habit to multimodal biometrics. The contributions additionally current the pioneering efforts and state of the art effects, with distinctive concentrate on sensible concerns relating approach improvement. This ebook is a worthy reference for validated researchers and it additionally offers an outstanding creation for newbies to appreciate the demanding situations.
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Extra resources for Advanced Topics In Biometrics
This event is marked [+glide], and is assigned articulator-bound features associated with the oﬀ-glide. Glides are produced with an intermediate narrowing of the vocal tract, so that there are no abrupt discontinuities from an adjacent vowel. Glide landmarks are chosen at times where the signal amplitude becomes a minimum (Sun, 1996). The [+glide] feature is marked for those times. Consonants are produced with an extreme narrowing or complete closing of the vocal tract, resulting in abrupt changes in the signal when the vocal tract closes (closure) and opens (release).
These segments will then be integrated into word units. This process has been termed lexical access. To ﬁnd higher level structures, and ﬁnally to deduce the meaning of an utterance, the application of grammatical parsing and semantic analysis methods will need to be implemented as well. Methods related to ﬁnding higher level structures, however, are beyond the scope of what can be covered here, and the reader is referred to related literature. In this chapter, a description of the distinctive feature representation of speech is presented, followed by the detailed descriptions of corresponding acoustic cues that can be extracted from the speech signal to infer the presence of these features.
The segment is produced by pressing the glottis together, so that the formant structure is visible, but the pitch is irregular. A glottal stop is marked [+constr]. Another example is the ﬂapped /t/ (which may be written /dd/ or /dx/). The tongue blade brieﬂy contacts the alveolar ridge, but there is no true constriction of the vocal tract, and should be denoted [+glide]. This articulation is similar to that for /r/, but F3 is not as low. This segment is also typically very short in duration. The articulator-bound features for the ﬂapped /t/ may be marked [−ant, −dist].
Advanced Topics In Biometrics by Haizhou Li, Kar-Ann Toh, Liyuan Li