By Simon Collier
Supplying an outline of Chilean background for the final reader in addition to the expert, this article employs fundamental and secondary fabrics to research the nation's political, financial, and social evolution from independence to 2002. not like different works, the quantity examines intensive the newest occasions of Chile's historical past: the diversification of its economic system, unfold of democratic associations, development of public health and wellbeing, and emergence of a wealthy highbrow tradition. First version Hb (1996): 0-521-56075-6 First variation Pb (1996): 0-521-56827-7
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Domestic demand also grew with the expansion of the mestizo population, with its preference for European rather than native food. Chilean estates, hitherto mostly ranches, now turned to cereal cultivation, and from then on were referred to as haciendas. ) Once again, we should not exaggerate the scale of the wheat trade. 5 Even so, production in the middle and late eighteenth century was modest in comparison with the levels of one hundred years later. By nineteenthcentury standards, only a relatively small acreage was brought under the plow.
The real problem with late-colonial trade, therefore, was not one of supply but of demand. The odious Spanish monopoly was much less to blame than the social structure of the colony. Given the general poverty, the domestic market was quickly saturated: the mercantile elite was thus anxious to restrict, not expand, the flow of trade. Unlike the new Viceroyalty of the River Plate, Chile was not well placed to take advantage of the Bourbon reforms. There was no great flow of trade through the colony, and, apart from wheat, no commodity that earned very much in the external market.
By the same token, however, we could argue that a sense of social hierarchy was itself an important component of the embryonic national culture. Certain patterns of deference and snobbery became deeply ingrained in Chilean life in the colonial period, patterns which have only begun to dissolve in very recent times, and which were (as we shall see) possibly evoked at a subconscious level during the military regime of the 1970s and 1980s. Let us concentrate, however, on two basic matters whose importance to any culture is undeniable: food and language.
A History of Chile, 1808-2002 by Simon Collier